The life of Rosalinda Franklin
         Rosalinda Franklin was a British chemist best known for her role in the discovery of the structure of DNA, and for her pioneering use of X-ray      diffraction.      She      was born in 1920 in London, England. She earned a Ph.D. in physical chemistry from Cambridge University. She learned crystallography and X-ray diffraction, and applied these techniques to discover DNA fibers. Her photographs provided key insights into DNA structure. Many scientists used her photographs as evidence to support their DNA model and took credit for the discovery.
         Unfortunately Franklin died of ovarian cancer in 1958, at age 37.           Rosalind Elsie Franklin was born into an influential Jewish family on July 25, 1920, in      Notting      Hill, London, England. She displayed exceptional intelligence from early childhood;      she started to show passion for science at an early age of fifteen. Franklin wanted      to be a scientist. She received her education at several schools, including North London Collegiate School, where she excelled in science, among other things.      She      enrolled at      Newnham      College, Cambridge, in 1938 and studied chemistry. In 1941, she was awarded Sec     ond Class Honors in her finals. Her award      was accepted as a bachelor's degree in the qualifications for employment. She went on to work as an assistant research officer at the British Coal      Utilisation      Research Association, where she studied the porosity of coalwork that was the basis of her 1945 Ph.D.      She studied t     he physical chemistry of solid organic colloids      with special reference to coal.      In 1946, Franklin was appointed at the      Laboratoire      Central des Servic     es      Chimiques      de      l'Etat      in Paris.
         S     he worked with crystallographer Jacques      Mering     . He taught her X-ray diffraction, which      played      an      important role in her research that led to the discovery of the structure      of DNA. In addition,      Franklin      used      X-rays to create image     s of      crystalized      solids in identifying      inorgani     c      matter, not just single crystals.           In January 1951,      she      began working as a research associate at the King's College London in the biophysics unit,      with      director      John      Randall.
         She      used her expertise and X-ray diffraction techniques      to examine      DNA fibers.       She      s     tud     ied      DNA      structure with X-ray diffraction,      and      made an amazing discovery           with      her student Raymond Gosling     .       They took pictures of DNA and discovered that there were two forms of it     .       One of their X-ray diffraction pictures      of the "B" form of DNA (     Photograph 51     )      became famous as critical evidence in identifying the structure of DNA. The photo was acquired through 100 hours of X-ray exposure from a machine Franklin      refined.
         Franklin was known for her      cautious      and diligent work ethic,      but she was also known      for      her            conflict      with colleague Maurice Wilkins,       a conflict which ended up      costing her      dearly     . In January 1953, Wilkins changed the course of DNA history by disclosing without Franklin's permission or knowledge her Photo 51 to competing scientist James Watson, who was working on his own DNA model with Francis Crick at Cambridge.           The two scientists did in fact use      Franklin's      Photo      51 as the basis for      their      now           famous model of DNA     . They      published      it           on March 7, 1953, and received a Nobel Prize in 1962. Crick and Watson were also able to take most of the credit for the finding     .            M     uch of their work      however      was      based on      Franklin's photo     s      and findings.
         Unfortunately,      Franklin didn't know that these men based their     Nature           article on her research, and she didn't complain either     .      Franklin left King's College in March 1953 and relocated to      Birkbeck      College, where she studied the structure of the tobacco mosaic virus and the structure of RNA. Because Randall let Franklin leave on the condition that she would not work on DNA, she turned her attention back to studies of coal. In five years, Franklin published 17 papers on viruses, and her group laid the foundations for structural virology.           In the fall of 1956, Franklin discovered that she had ovarian cancer.
         She continued working      for      two years, despite      her illness. She received an experimental chemotherapy treatment and      experienced a 10-month remission and worked up until several weeks before her death on April 16, 1958, at the age